Now the UN says it has evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity.
Both security forces and armed groups have been implicated in a report.
The 338-page document details atrocities allegedly committed since the 2012 armed conflict.
The investigators have handed their report to the secretary general.
And their conclusion could be used as a legal basis for prosecution.
They have already recommended setting up a court.
Presenter: Mohammed Jamjoom.
Mohamed Salaha, journalist and publisher at Le Mali Mag dot com, a Malian news website. Mohamed writes extensively on security and conflict in the Sahel region.
Susanna Wing, a specialist on West Africa and associate professor at Haverford College. Susanna is also author of 'Constructing Democracy in Africa: Mali in Transition.'
Manu Lekunze, Lecturer at the University of Aberdeen and author of 'Inherent and contemporary challenges to African Security'.
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